Basswood Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. Red Ash Morus rubra L. Red Mulberry Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Bur Oak Gleditsia triacanthos L. Honeylocust Populus deltoides Marsh. Cottonwood Salix nigra Marsh.
Black Willow Pinus nigra Ait. Black Pine Fraxinus americana L. White Ash Acer platanoides L. Norway Maple Ostrya virginiana Miller K. Koch Ironwood or Hop-hornbeam Castanea dentata Marsh. American Chestnut Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. American Beech Acer saccharum Marsh. Sugar Maple Taxodium distichum L. Bald-cypress Sequoiadendron giganteum Lindl. Buchholz Giant Sequoia Acer pseudoplatanus L.
Sycamore Maple Prunus pensylvanica L. Pin Cherry Salix matsudana Koidzumi f. Betula papyrifera Marsh.
Mountain Paper Birch Betula pendula Roth European White Birch Acer saccharinum L. Silver Maple Platanus occidentalis L. Picea abies Norway Spruce Michigan Botanist Reference 51 13 15 94 - 52 14 17 96 National Champion determination is based on a point system with the number of points obtained by adding the circumference of the trunk, in inches, 4Y' above the ground to the height in feet and Y of the average crown spread in feet. The circumference of the trunk is usually the easiest measurement to make.
The height is best determined by using an inclinometer, Abbey Hand Level, transit, or other instrument for measuring the angle formed by sighting the base and top of the tree. If this angle is measured ' from the tree a table of tangents can be used to convert the number of degrees of the angle to the height of the tree in feet. If instruments to measure the angle are not available you can use a straight stick and back away from the tree to measure its height.
Hold the stick at arm's length as you back away from the tree. When you are far enough from the tree that you can sight over your hand holding the stick to the base of the tree and over the top of the stick to the top of the tree you are at a distance from the tree equal to the height of the tree. For this to be accurate, you must be on ground level with the tree base. There are several other more or less reliable methods of measuring the heights of trees. If a tree stands alone and casts a shadow on a sunny day, the length of the shadow can be measured and compared to the shadow cast by a yardstick.
For instance, if the yardstick 3' casts a 6' shadow each foot of the yardstick casts a 2' shadow and the tree casts a ' shadow, the height of the tree is 60'. Another method that works quite well is to have someone of known height, say 6', stand at the base of the tree.
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While you back away from the tree holding a yardstick at arm's length you will reach a point where you can measure the apparent height of the person standing at the tree base and the apparent height of the tree from that point. For instance, if the 6' person measures 6" on the yardstick 1" for each foot held at arm's length and the tree measures 30", the height of the tree is 30'. For trees standing in a mixed woods where it may be difficult to be sure which top branches belong to which tree and shadows and long lines of sight are not available, the use of an Abby hand-held level, transit, or other instruments may be necessary.
In those cases, County Extension Agents, county or city foresters or other experienced person may be of help.
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The average crown spread can be measured by examining the farthest extent of the crown on all sides of the tree. You then measure the tip-to-tip distance across the largest crown length. Do the same across the shortest tip-to-tip crown distance and average the two. The average is known as the average crown spread. To report a big tree, first determine the identity of the tree. It will not be sufficient to say, "It is some kind of oak," unless you are prepared to send leaves, twig. Personnel from your County Extension Service or a nearby college or university may be able to help you confirm the identity of the tree.
Second, take the measurements described above. Finally, send the name of the tree, its exact location, and measurements to the State's Big Tree Coordinator-for the near future, the author of this paper. This will insure the inclusion of the tree in the state's Big Tree Inventory. It is hoped that GPS records can be included to more accurately indicate the location. Table 3 presents a list of the abbreviations used. Table 4 presents an alphabetical list of the same trees and shrubs by common names to facilitate finding a tree or shrub when only the common name is known.
Table 5 presents a list of these same trees and shrubs arranged by county. The scientific and common names used in these lists are those regularly used in books and manuals treating the plants known to be growing in the Great Lakes area. In most cases there is little uncertainty about what name to use.
A few, however, are problematic.
Most of these are related to hybrids between species or a difference of taxonomic opinion as to whether the varieties of a species should be recognized as separate species. Unfortunately, both of these types of problems occur in our most common trees, oaks and maples. In most cases these measurements were made in accordance with the specifications given above. Periodically, when a tree is re-measured it is found to have a lesser height or average crown spread.
This is usually due to a loss of branches caused by a storm since the earlier measurements were made. The date of the most recent measurement is given in the last column of Table 2. Familial Risk Factors for Adolescent Suicide. David A. Suicidal Behavior Runs in Families. Brent, Jeff Bridge, Barbara A. Johnson, John Connolly. Suicides in Australia. Suicide in the 18 Years after Deliberate Self-Harm. Gregory M. Youth Suicide. G Tiller, J. Krupinski, G. Burrows, A. Mackenzie, H. Hallenstein, G.
Krupinski, J. Tiller, G. An Overview of Indigenous Suicide. Suicide in Early Psychosis. Suicide Among the Canadian Inuit. Antoon A. Leenaars, Jack Anawak, Lucien Taparti.
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Suicide in Japan. Suicides in Police Custody in The Netherlands. Suicide in Sri Lanka. Depression and Attempted Suicide. Kraaij, I. Kremers, E.
Arensman, A. Carter, I.
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