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It is unique in that it was preserved virtually intact. It was preserved, ironically, when it had to be infilled with earth to strengthen the city's fortifications against a Sassanian assault in The synagogue contains a forecourt and house of assembly with frescoed walls depicting people and animals, and a Torah shrine in the western wall facing Jerusalem. The synagogue paintings, the earliest continuous surviving biblical narrative cycle , are conserved at Damascus.

It is thought that the Synagogue was used in part as an instructional display to educate and teach the history and laws of the religion.

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Some think that this synagogue was painted in order to compete with the many other religions practiced in Dura Europos. The large-scale pictorial art in the synagogue helps to dispel narrow interpretations of historically prohibited visual images" Wikipedia article on Dura-Europos synagogue, accessed A parchment fragment discovered in the Dura Europos synagogue containing texts highly reminiscent of rabbinic prayer texts, may be the earliest surviving record of rabbinic texts.

The government also issued libellatici certificates certifying that apostates had renounced Christianity. A total of 46 libelli from the year have been published. However, not participating made one liable to arrest by the Roman authorities. A warrant to arrest a Christian POxy was also found at Oxyrhynchus, this too has been dated precisely—to the year The grounds for this arrest are not documented, however, and it predates the persecution under the emperor Valerian by about a year.

Christian theologians for example Cyprian debated whether the threat of the death penalty mitigated the sin of having communion with idols, leaving room for forgiveness and restoration to the Christian community" Wikipedia article on Libellus, accessed Eduard Schwartz supposes that Origen's library was damaged at this time, although there is no direct evidence of it.

Probably Schwartz made his conjecture because it helps to explain why Pamphilus later had to expend great effort to acquire copies of Origen's works for the Caesarean library.

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Decius required that people of the Roman Empire perform sacrifice and receive certificates libelli of compliances with the imperial order. In or Origen was arrested, imprisoned, and tortured, but he evidently survived the persecution. It seems, then that either his case was dismissed or, what is probably more likely, he simply outlived the persecution and was freed in Because Origen's judge had the power to coerce Origen's compliance by imprisonment, torture, and the assessment of fines, even to the extent of confiscation of his personal property, it is possible that his library was damaged, though certainly it was not destroyed, since, for example, the Hexapla survived until at least Jerome's day.

Indeed, despite the persecution, as well as whatever other misfortunes may have befallen the library after Origen's death, Pamphilus was probably drawn to settle at Caesarea because of the reputation the city enjoyed as the home of Origen's library. Origen's bishop, Theoctistus, survived for almost another decade, through the persecution under Valerian to the restoration of peace by Gallienus in Domnus succeeded him for a short time and was himself then succeeded by Theotecnus, whom Eusebius calls a contemporary.

Theotecnus' access is according dated to sometime after Because of this association with Origen, it is possible that Origen's library now came, if it was not already, under direct episcopal authority" Carriker, The Library of Eusebius of Caesarea [] Note that I left out numerous textual citations by Carriker and his many footnotes. The links are, of course, my additions. This story of Origen's emasculation remained sensational throughout the Middle Ages, as it was illustrated in various miniature paintings, such as the one reproduced from Bodleian Library, MS Douce , fol. Douce , fol.

Papyrus 45 P. Chester Beatty I , an early New Testament manuscript in codex form, was probably created around in Egypt. It contains the texts of Matthew and ; Mark and ; Luke and ; John and ; and Acts Originally comprising around leaves arranged in gatherings of two leaves, the manuscript demonstrates that Christians used the book or codex form for their Scriptures rather than the roll format, from an early date. The papyrus fragments also show that the Four Gospels circulated together.

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Most of the surviving fragments of the text consist of sections of the Gospels of Sts Luke and John, but enough of the text from the other two Gospels and Acts remains to enable the overall content and structure of the codex to be identified. The texts that they preserve reveal that there were slightly different versions of the Gospels circulating by the beginning of the third century.

For example, verse 24, starting ten lines down, includes the additional words 'the birds of heaven' in the phrase 'Consider the ravens: they do not sow or reap', language that is similar to that found in St. Matthew's account " Reeve [ed. Its fifth and final text is written in a single column, 12 lines. Dating from about , it is one of the earliest extant codices, showing the adoption of the codex form of the book by early Christians. In it was the earliest codex in private hands. The codex represents the earliest known complete text of the two books of the Bible, Jonah and 1 Peter.

Of 1 Peter there is also a Greek papyrus slightly later, circa , from the same hoard, now in the Vatican Library. It is the single most important manuscript of 1 Peter. Texts 2 and 4 are also the earliest witnesses. Text 5 is unique, and probably the oldest extant Christian liturgical manuscript. The codex derives from the hoard known as the " Bodmer Papyri ", consisting of 9 Greek papyrus rolls, 22 papyrus codices and circa 7 vellum codices in Greek and Coptic.

Robinson's view is not universally shared. The rolls and codices from the library were buried in a large sealed jar probably during the Arabic conquest of Egypt in the seventh century, and were not found until The provenance of the Crosby-Schoyen Codex is among the most complicated of all the so-called Bodmer Papyri:. Copied from exemplars in Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Alexandria 3rd c.

Monastery of the Pachomian Order, Dishna, Egypt 4th-7th c. Buried in a jar in the sand 7th c. Hasan Muhammad al-Samman, Abu Mana ; 5. Riyad Jirjis Fam, Dishna ; 6. Phocion J. Tano, Cairo ; 7. Sultan Maguid Sameda, Cairo until ; 8. University of Mississippi, Oxford, Mississippi ; 9. Kraus, New York ; Vinsor T. Sotheby's 6.

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As above; 7. William H. Willis, Durham, North Carolina from ; 9. It was acquired in Egypt by American missionary David Askren , whose finds were purchased in by Charles Lang Freer in partnership with banker and financier J. Morgan, Jr. It is one of the earliest papyrus codices preserved in North America. One of the earliest uses of the word Christian surviving on papyrus is Papyrus Oxyrhynchus P. The charge which makes the Christian liable for arrest is not given, unless this is Christianity itself. Persecution could explain this document, but Christians were generally tolerated by the authorities, periods of systematic persecution stand out as distinctive and exceptional in other documentation.

One such period, however, was 'instituted under the emperor Valerian in AD and The manuscript is dated precisely in its closing lines to the third year of the co-regency of Valerian and Gallienus his son. We know this year to be AD. The day and month are also provided in the last line.


Phamenoth is the name of a month in the Egyptian calendar. It is called Paremhat in the Coptic calendar. The warrant was issued on the third day of this month. The equivalent date in our Gregorian calendar is 28 February AD" Wikipedia article on Papyrus Oxyrhynchus , accessed He established a library that may have contained 30, manuscripts, and a scriptorium at a Christian theological school at Caesarea Palaestina , now Caesarea Maritima, a town on the coast of Israel between Tel Aviv and Haifa. Because of this library Caesarea was the capital of Christian scholarship in the 3rd century.

Probably in the early and mid's, he studied in Alexandria under the presbyter Pierius, who was himself known as 'the Younger Origen. Pamphilus' school could boast no unbroken descent from Origen's school, because there was no continuous sucession of masters at Caesarea between Origen and Pamphilus.

He was executed and martyred on February 16, Yet, in prison and suffering from his torture wounds, Pamphilius did not remain idle but continued editing the Septuagint and with Eusebius, wrote a Defense of Origen that he sent to the confessors in the mines of Phaeno, Egypt [i. He was then beheaded on February 16, with several of his disciples.

In his memory Eusebius called himself Eusebius Pamphili, to denote his close friendship with Pamphilius" Orthodox Wiki article on Pamphilius , accessed Pamphilius of Caesarea. Vatican Library. So few codices and papyrus rolls have survived from the third and fourth centuries—the period of transition from the roll to the codex— that we know remarkably little about the specific contents of any public and private libraries from the time. No catalogue of his library survived, but since Eusebius referenced so many specific sources in his voluminous writings, it was possible to work backwards from those references to reconstruct at least part of the library that Eusebius used from around to Four of these works contain the most important evidence and have according been given the most attention: the Chronicon for historical works; the Historia Ecclesiastica HE for Jewish and Christian works; the Praeparatio Evangelica PE for Jewish and Christian works; and the Vita Constantini VC for contemporary documents.

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The primary work of this book is thus to reconstruct the contents of the library from the quotations and references in these four works. Some of the difficulties of this task, most notably the problem of establishing whether Eusebius used his sources firsthand or through intermediaries, are treated in chapter two.

Perhaps because Eusebius's writings remained central to the early history of Christianity, his writings remained in circulation through the Middle Ages up to the present, and have generated many editions and commentaries, beginning soon after Eusebius's death. Working through the primary sources and the main commentaries, Carriker was able to produce on pp.

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